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Al Imam Abu Haneefah An-Nu`man

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Posted by SHZM | Posted in Uncategorized | Posted on 10-03-2015

It is a well-known fact that Muslims follow some basic schools of thought in matters of Islamic Jurisprudence, other than questions of faith and fundamentals of worship and legal practices. For the latter are not subject to controversy, since they have been clearly defined in the Qur’an and in the teachings of Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam
The renowned scholars of the four basic schools were Abu Haneefah, Maalik ibn Anas, Muhammad ibn Idrees ash-Shaafii and Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Now we will try to shed some light on the personality of Abu Haneefah, whose school of thought is widely spread especially in Asia (including the Indian subcontinent, the whole of Central Asia and countries like Turkey and Afghanistan).
Abu Haneefah An-Nu`man was born in Koofa, Iraq, in the year 80 AH. He was lucky to be born in the second generation of Islam since he had the opportunity to learn from some companions of Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam, and many renowned scholars of the second generation. It has been pointed out that Abu Haneefah was the first to codify Islamic law or jurisprudence (commonly known as Fiqh) compiled from the Qur’an and the Sunnah.

Our hero was a merchant by profession, but he spent both ends of the day in teaching in the mosque. He was exemplary in his conduct both as a merchant and a teacher. For he was not only very honest in his commercial dealings, but he was very conscientious as well, to the extent that he would refuse any profit he felt uneasy about, even if it was a legitimate one. Once a lady came to his store and requested him to sell a silk dress for her. He asked her about the suggested price for the dress. When she told him “100 dirhams”, he told her that it was worth more than that. She could not believe that until it was sold for her before her own eyes for 500 dirhams. On another occasion our hero warned his partner not to sell a certain garment due to some defects in it. Somehow his partners forgot and sold that garment. When our hero knew that, he decided to give out in charity all the money earned that day, and he broke the partnership with his friend who sold the defective garment even though inadvertently.

As a teacher, our hero used to support all his needy students in order for them to devote all their time to learning. His encouragement of education made him very generous even to scholars. It is reported that when he wanted to buy clothes for himself or his family, he would do the same for some of the scholars he knew. In fact, our hero’s generosity reached everyone that came in contact with him. One day he was walking down the street when he noticed a man trying to hide from him. Abu Haneefah asked the man, “Why are you trying to hide from me?” When he was told that he owed our hero 10,000 dirhams and was embarrassed because he could not pay the money to him, our hero informed the man that he no longer wanted the loan back. He further asked the man to forgive him for causing him so much trouble and feeling of embarrassment!

As a typical man of piety our hero was very kind to all his acquaintances, whom he visited when ill and inquired about when absent. A very interesting case is reported in the encounter between our hero and his drunkard neighbor, who would get drunk and keep singing aloud all night long causing so much annoyance to Abu Haneefah. Once the police caught the man (the noisy neighbor) and took him to prison. Abu Haneefah noticed that night that the neighborhood was quiet. So he inquired about his noisy neighbor. Upon knowing of his neighbor’s imprisonment, he rushed to the governor of the city interceding for his neighbor who was immediately released. Not only that, Abu Haneefah gave the man some money to compensate for the earnings he lost due to imprisonment. The drunkard was so impressed with this kind attitude and treatment that he decided to repent and devote his time to learning the message of Islam in the mosque.

Abu Haneefah’s fear of falling into fault made him refuse all the offers made by governors and the Caliph to appoint him in public offices, including the post of a judge. For that reason Caliph Abu Ja`far al-Mansoor ordered that Abu Haneefah be put in jail where he died in the year 150 AH.

But even if our hero died in prison, his name is still very much alive in the memory of Islamic history and millions of the followers of his school of thought and others all over the world.

By: Dr. Muhammad Esma’il Sieny
Source: islaam.com

A Hajj Packing List for Muslim Women

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Posted by SHZM | Posted in Uncategorized | Posted on 11-02-2015

This is a list suitable for someone staying in a tent or other non-hotel accommodations.

Please note: all items with an asterisk should be taken with you to Arafat.

1. 2-3 Ihram outfits (if you choose to wear them)

2. sheets

3. body and hand towels

4. comfortable scarf to wear indoors

5. surgical masks to wear out in crowds – can be bought in the pharmacies in Saudi Arabia

6. hair tie-backs

7. coat hangers (also to use for drying washed clothes)

8. tennis shoes

9. socks

10. pajamas

11. robe

12. broken-in rubber sandals

13. Band-Aids

* 14. tissues

* 15. waterless hand wash liquid

* 16. fanny pack

* 17. non-scented soap

* 18. washcloth in plastic bag

* 19. pillow

* 20. small bag or suitcase (for Arafat)

* 21. umbrella (for sun!)

* 22. prayer rug

* 23. sunscreen (unscented)

* 24. Quran

* 25. Dua (supplication) and other Islamic books

* 26. chopstick

* 27. camp stool

* 28. water bottle carrier and plastic cup

* 29. battery-operated personal fan

* 30. toothbrush and paste

* 31. eye drops

Other notes:
The surest way to have a bad Hajj experience is to get sick. Alhamdulillah, I was one of the very few who didn’t. My recommendations are to wear surgical masks at all times when out in crowds, and most importantly, NEVER touch any part of your face without washing your hands first, either with soap and water, or, more practically, with the new waterless hand wash gel.

Also, at the first symptom of any illness, take Echinacea, vitamin C, aspirin or whatever else is indicated. And, of course, drink plenty of water at all times.

Another important piece of advice is when you are out in crushing crowds to never, ever attempt to retrieve any dropped item. Shoes, fans, books can all be replaced, but there is a severe risk of being trampled should you try to stop or bend down. As several fatal stampedes have occurred at the stoning of the Jamarat, have a ’scout’ from your group check the crowd situation before you attempt to go there.

By: Brenda Gant
Source: www.soundvision.com

A Guide to Halal Food Selection

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Posted by SHZM | Posted in Uncategorized | Posted on 16-01-2015

Disclaimer : This list was prepared by the organization mentioned above. The MSA is not able nor qualified to make any Fatawas on Halal or Haram. Any questions should be addressed to the Halal Foundation or some other qualified individual(s).

Oh people! Eat of what is on earth, lawful and good. (The Holy Quran)

Instructions

For a product to be Halal (lawful) for Muslim consumption all its ingredients should be Halal. Follow the following list:

Read the ingredients on label carefully. Ingredients are listed according to the amounts present. The first ingredient listed is present in the largest amount.
Identify the Halal/Haram/Mushbooh status of each ingredient using this guide.
Search the ingredient name in the list and its status will be next to it.
If all ingredients of a product are Halal, the product is fit for Muslim consumption.
If any of the ingredient is Haram, the product should not be consumed.
If any ingredient falls under Mushbooh category avoid this product, as the Prophet has advised us to avoid doubtful matters. This ingredient could come from a Haram source. To find out the status of this ingredient you should write or call the manufacturer of the product.
Glossary:

Halal: Halal is a Quranic term which means allowed or lawful. Halal foods and drinks are permitted for consumption by Allah-the Supreme Law Giver. Eating Halal is obligatory on every Muslim.

Haram: Haram is a Quranic term which means prohibited or unlawful. Haram foods and drinks are absolutely prohibited by Allah. Eating Haram is forbidden for every Muslim.

Mushbooh: Mushbooh is an Arabic term which means suspected. If one does not know the Halal or Harm status of a particular food or drink, such a food or drink is doubtful. A practicing Muslim prevents himself from consuming doubtful things.

Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) is reported to have said:

“Halal is clear and Haram is clear; in between these two are certain things that are suspected. Many people may not know whether those items are Halal or Haram. Whosoever leaves them, he is innocent towards his religion and his conscience. He is, therefore, safe. Anyone who gets involved in any of these suspected items, he may fall into the unlawful and the prohibited. This case is similar to the one who wished to raise his animals too close to a restricted area, so that the animals may step into that area. Indeed for every landlord there is a restricted area. Indeed the restriction of Allah are the Haram.” (Sahih Bukhari & Sahih Muslim)

Ingredient Status
Acetic Acid Halal
Alcohol Haram
Ammonium Sulfate Halal
Ammonium Chloride Halal
Animal Fat Haram
Animal Shortening Haram
Ascorbic Acid Halal
Aspartame Halal
Bacon (Pork) Haram
Benzoate/Benzoic Acid Halal
BHA Halal
BHT Halal
Calcium Carbonate Halal
Calcium Sulfate Halal
Carrageenan Halal
Cholesterol Mushbooh
Citric Acid Halal
Cocoa Butter Halal
Collagen (Pork) Haram
Corn Meal / Corn Starch Halal
Corn Syrup Halal
Dextrin / Dextrose Halal
Dicalcium Phosphate Halal
Diglyceride Mushbooh
Diglyceride (plant) Halal
EDTA Halal
Enzyme Mushbooh
Ergocalciferol Halal
Ergosterol Halal
Ethoxylated Mono-/Di Glyceride Mushbooh
Fatty Acid Mushbooh
Ferrous Sulfate Halal
Fructose Halal
Fungal Protease Enzyme Halal
Gelatin / Kosher Gelatin Haram
Glucose Halal
Glyceride Mushbooh
Glycerol / Glycerin Mushbooh
Glycerol Stearate Mushbooh
Glycogen Mushbooh
Gum Acacia Halal
Hormones Mushbooh
Hydrogenated Oil Halal
Hydrolyzed Animal Protein Mushbooh
Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Halal
Lard Haram
Leavenings Halal
Lecithin (commercial) Halal
Malt Halal
Malto Dextrin Halal
Molasses Halal
Monocalcium Phosphate Halal
Mono Saccharides Halal
Monoglycerides Mushbooh
MSG (Monosodium Glutamate) Halal
Nitrates / Nitrites Halal
Nonfat Dry Milk Halal
Oxalic Acid Halal
PABA Halal
Vegetable Oil Halal
Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil Halal
Pectic Materials Halal
Pectin Halal
Pepsin Mushbooh
Phospholipid Mushbooh
Phosphoric Acid Halal
Pork Haram
Potassium Benzoate Halal
Potassium Bromate Halal
Potassium Citrate Halal
Propionate Halal
Propionic Acid Halal
Renin / Rennet Mushbooh
Saccharine Halal
Salt Halal
Shortening Mushbooh
Soy Protein Halal
Soybean Oil Halal
Sucrose Halal
Tapioca Halal
Tricalcium Phosphate Halal
Vinegar Halal
Whey Mushbooh
Yeast Halal

Source: www.uh.edu

Advice to Muslims in Ramadan

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Posted by SHZM | Posted in Uncategorized | Posted on 03-01-2015

Few introductory and complementary notes by the translator:

1. Ramadan is an auspicious opportunity for believers to renew their commitment to their Creator and the Sovereign of the Day of Recompense. This commitment must be both outward and inward so that a Muslim not only recites more Quran and offers more units of prayer, but that she or he does so with reflection, humility and attentiveness.

2. Muslims must ensure they are not formalists who concentrate only on the outward. Achieving Allah’s acceptance must be a believer’s priority and is not easy. “Indeed, Allah only accepts from the righteous (who fear him – al muttaqoon).” (Quran 5:27)

3. Ramadan is a wonderful opportunity for accounting of one’s sins and making repentance. If one does not repent in Ramadan, when will he or she do so?

4. Muslims should strive to worship Allah as best as they can from the beginning of the month, for that increases chances of the end of the month being good as well.

5. Muslims should consider what is it that they truly want to achieve in Ramadan, whether they want to be from the winners or from the losers, and should make sure they do not perform acts of worship simply because it is the surrounding people’s custom to do so.

6. Muslims must be firmly aware that Ramadan is only a means and not an end.

Advice to Muslims in Ramadan

From the book “Khulaasatul Kalaam” by Shaikh Jaarullah.

Muslim brother, Muslima sister:

1. Fast Ramadan with belief and truly seek the reward of Allah the Most High so that He may forgive you your past sins.

2. Beware of breaking your fast during the days of Ramadan without a valid Islamic excuse, for it is from the greatest of sins.

3. Pray Salat ut-Taraweeh and the night prayer during the nights of Ramadan, especially on Layatul-Qadr – based on belief and truly seek the reward of Allah so that Allah may forgive you your past sins.

4. Make sure that your food, your drink and your clothing are from Halal means in order that your actions be accepted, and your supplications answered.

5. Give food to some fasting people to gain a reward similar to theirs.

6. Perform your five prayers on time in congregation to gain the reward and Allah’s protection.

7. Give a lot of charity for the best charity is that of Ramadan.

8. Beware of spending your time without performing righteous deeds, for you will be responsible and reckoned for it and will be rewarded for all you do during your time.

9. Perform Umrah in Ramadan for Umrah in Ramadan is equal to Hajj.

10. Seek help for fasting during the day by eating the Suhoor meal in the last part of the night before the appearance of Fajr.

11. Hasten breaking your fast after the sun has truly set in order to gain the love of Allah.

12. Perform ghusl before Fajr if you need to purify yourself from the state of major impurity so that you are able to do acts of worship in a state of purity and cleanliness.

13. Seize the opportunity of being in Ramadan and spend it with the good that has been revealed in it – by reciting the noble Quran and pondering and reflection of its meanings so that it be a proof for you with your Lord and an intercessor for you on the Day of Reckoning.

14. Preserve your tongue from lying, cursing, backbiting and slander for it decreases the reward of fasting.

15. Do not let fasting cause you cross your boundaries by getting upset due to the slightest of reasons. Rather, fating should be a cause of peacefulness and tranquility of your soul.

16. Upon completion of fasting, be in a state of taqwa of Allah the Most High, being aware of Allah watching you in secret and in public, in thankfulness for His favors, and steadfastness upon obedience of Allah by doing all what He has ordered and shunning all that He has prohibited.

17. Increase in remembrance of Allah, seeking of forgiveness, asking for Paradise and protection against the Fire, especially when fasting, while breaking the fast and during Suhoor, for these actions are among greatest causes of attaining Allah’s forgiveness.

18. Increase in supplication for yourself, your parents, your children and Muslims, for Allah has ordered making of supplications and has guaranteed acceptance.

19. Repent to Allah with a sincere repentance in all times by leaving sins, regretting those that you have done before and firmly deciding not to return to them in the future, for Allah accepts repentance of those who repent.

20. Fast six days of Shawwal, for whoever fasts Ramadan and then follows it with six days of Shawwal, it is as if he fasts all the time.

21. Fast on the Day of Arafat, the 9th of Dhul Hijjah to attain success by being forgiven your sins of the last year and the coming year.

22. Fast on the day of Aashuraa, the 10th of Muharram, along with the 9th to attain success by being forgiven your sins of the past year.

23. Continue being in a state of iman and taqwa and perform righteous actions after the month of Ramadan, until you die. “And worship your Lord until there comes to you the certainty (i.e. death)”. (Quran 15:99)

24. Ensure that you attain the positive effects of your acts of worship such as prayer, fasting, Zakah and Hajj, sincere repentance and leaving of customs that are in variance with the Shariah.

25. Invoke a lot of salawat and salam upon the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, his Companions and all those who follow them until the Day of Judgment.

O Allah make us and all Muslims of those who fast and stand in prayer during the month of Ramadan based on belief and truly seeking Your reward so that we are forgiven our past and future sins.

O Allah make us of those who fasted the month, attained full reward, witnessed Layatul-Qadr and attained success by permission of the Lord, Blessed and Most High.

O Allah, verily you are Forgiver, like to forgive, so forgive us.

O Lord, accept from us, verily you are the All-Hearing, all-Seeing, O Living, O Independent, O Owner of all majesty and honor.

And may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon Muhammad, his family and his Companions.

By: Shaikh Abdullah al-Jarullah
Source: www.islaam.com

Advice from Abu Dharr Al-Ghafari

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Posted by SHZM | Posted in Uncategorized | Posted on 02-01-2015

I find Abu Dharr al-Ghafaari one of the most interesting personalities from among the Sahaabah. He was known for his asceticism and admonitions. It is narrated in Abu Na`im’s al-Hilyah that someone asked Abu Dharr (May Allah be pleased with him) “O Abu Dharr, why do people leave your company upset every time they visit you?” He replied, ‘They leave upset because I admonish them against hoarding the treasures of this world.’”

The following is one of his admonitions narrated by Sufyaan ath-Thawree (May Allah be pleased with him) as related in al-Hilyah of Abu Na`im:

“O people, I am Jandab’ul Ghafaari. Come here and hearken to the good advice of your compassionate older brother.” Immediately, people hastened and stood around him to hear what he had to say. Abu Dharr then said, “Do you see, when one of you plans to travel, doesn’t he prepare himself and takes with him the needed provisions that will suffice him until he reaches his destination?” The people replied, ‘Indeed, he does.’ Abu Dharr continued, “In this regard, the road to the Day of Reckoning is the furthest of your ultimate destinations. Take with you what benefits you the most.” The people asked, ‘And what do you consider as most beneficial for such a journey?’”

Abu Dharr replied:

1) Make a pilgrimage to Makkah for your dire needs;

2) Fast in the hottest day in contemplation of the horrific age-old standing of the Day of Resurrection;

3) Pray two Rakah (units) in the darkness of the night in contemplation of one’s bewilderment, loneliness, and darkness of his grave;

4) Either say something good, or remain silent pondering on awesome age-long standing in the grim silence of the Day of Resurrection;

5) Spend your money in charity, so perhaps you can escape its trials;

6) Make this world a setting for two types of conferences: One to seek the benefits of the hereafter, and the other to seek what is permissible. Should there be a third criteria of meetings, they will be of harm and of no benefit to you; and finally,

7) Look to your money and divide it in two categories: One dirham you spend on your family, the second you spend for your benefits in the hereafter, and should there be left a third dirham, it will be of harm and of no benefit to you.”

Abu Dharr then shouted at the top of his voice: “O people! Your craving to accumulate what is beyond your reach will surely destroy you.”

Source: www.jannah.org

Additives & ‘E’ Numbers in Food

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Posted by SHZM | Posted in Uncategorized | Posted on 02-01-2015

Food additives are added to food to make it safer, keep it longer, stop the growth of bacteria, mould, and stop food going stale. They also aid processing as emulsifiers, raising agents, preservatives and improve food in terms of color, taste, texture and nutritional value.

Additives increase the variety of food available to consumers keeping prices down, allowing safe delivery of food to urban populated areas and create alternatives to traditional food like meat substitutes for meat, low fat products for butter and yogurt and sugar free drinks for diabetics.

The use of additives is strictly controlled by law. They may not be used in food unless they are on approved government supervised list, proving their safe and effective usage. Once approved by the EC it is then given an ‘E’ number and is constantly monitored by local government and the EEC.

EEC directives require all food to list ingredients of the various products used because additives being so complicated by way of understanding leave alone pronouncing would have ingredients look like a chemist’s dictionary.

The ‘E’ numbers were introduced to make it easier for EEC countries to come to a uniform system of regulating the additives industry.

We are publishing a list of numbers, some of which are Haraam and some of which are doubtful, because of its doubtful nature Muslims have to refrain from them as well.

E120 Cochineal (Carmine of Cochineal Carminicago, C.I.75490, derived from the insect Dactilopius Coccus).

E160 Alfa-Carotene, Beta-Carotene, Gamma-Carotene.

E471 Mono and Di-Glycerides of fatty acids. When Glycerol is used one has to find out the source whether animal or synthetic.

E472 (a-e) Lactic acid esters of mono- and di-glycerides of fatty acids. Prepared from esters of Glycerol.

E473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids prepared from Glycerol and Sucrose.

E474 Sycroglycerides prepared by reaction of Sucrose on natural triglycerides (from pal moil, lard, etc.)

E475 Polyglycerol esters of Fatty acids. Prepared in the laboratory.

E476 Polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids of castor oil (polyglycerol polyricinoleate). Prepared from Castor Oil and Glycerol esters.

E477 Propane-1,2-idol esters of fatty acids (Propylene Glycol esters of Fatty acids). Prepared from Propylene Glycol.

E478 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propane-1,2-idol. Prepared from esters of glycerol and Lactic acid.

E631 Insine (Disodium Phosphate, Sodium and Inosinate). The Disodium Salt of Inosinate Acid which can be prepared from insect or fish extract.

E635 A mixture of disodium guanylare and disodium inosinate. The same source as 631.

E640/920 L-Cysteine Hydrochloride and L-Cysteine hydrochloride mono hydrate. A naturally occurring amino acid manufactured from animal hair and chicken feathers.

All other ‘E’ number additives at the time of publication are Halal, because of the ruling of Tabdeel-e-Mahiyat. Please refer to our article elsewhere in this book on this subject.

Except the following:
E473, E474, E475, E476, E477, E478, E631, E635, E640, E920

E904 Shellac: a substance obtained from the resin produced by the Lac insect, mainly found in India. The secretions are bleached and dried before usage on confectionary, chocolate panning, ice creams latter and the shining of fruit, mainly apples.
This E number is also under investigation. We have had discussions with one of the companies regarding this E number and whether its secretion falls under the category of being Taahir (pure) or Najas (impure). We request readers to please look out for the report /update.

Source: almadina.co.uk

Aashooraa

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Posted by SHZM | Posted in Uncategorized | Posted on 02-01-2015

Aashooraa

FASTING IN MUHARRAM (THE FIRST MONTH OF ISLAMIC YEAR)

Fasting in the month of Muharram is highly desired, especially on the tenth day, Aashooraa. The Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.) has been reported as saying when asked which prayer is better after obligatory prayer: “Prayer in the middle of the night.” He was asked again which fast is better after Ramadan. He said: “In the month that is called Al-Muharram.” (Ahmed, Muslim, and Abu Dawood)

This Hadith clearly indicates the importance of voluntary fasting in Muharram, among all the months. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) however, emphasizes the fast of the tenth day, Aashooraa.

The word “Aashooraa” is derived from Ashara, which means ten. The observation of this day goes back to Prophet Moosa Bin Emran (p.b.u.h.). In a Hadith related by Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) “when the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.) came to Madinah, he found the Jews fasting the day of Aashooraa. He inquired why they did so. They replied that it was a good day, the day which Allah delivered Prophet Moosa (p.b.u.h.) and the children of Israel from their enemy. As gratitude Moosa (p.b.u.h.) fasted that day. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) responded: ‘I have more right to Moosa than you.’ He fasted the day and commanded the believers to fast.” (Bukhari and Muslim)
This Hadith indicates that the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) was in complete agreement with Prophet Moosa (p.b.u.h.) as well as the other prophets. The point here is that the Messenger of Allah would always do an act of worship if it was prophecy reported from any of the prophets. Earlier, we see how he told us that the best voluntary fast is the fast of Dawood.
This is why the following Hadith is of great interest to us. Ibn Abbas related when Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) observed the day of Aashooraa and commanded his followers to observe it, they asked him: “O Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.) this is the day the Jews, and Christians respect and honor… The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) promised them that ‘Next year Allah willing, we shall fast the ninth, tasuu’aa, along with the tenth.’ By the next Muharram, the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) had already passed away. Because the believers, desire to emulate Prophet Moosa in fasting on Aashooraa do so with the desire not to participate in the festivity of the People of the Book, who have reduced the day to a mere formality. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) decided to remove this ambiguity with the fast of the ninth day.”
Our Ulama (Muslim scholars), analyzing all reports from the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) regarding Muharram, stated the fast of Muharram can be viewed in three ways:

1. Fasting three days of Muharram, the ninth, tenth and eleventh.
2. Fasting on the ninth and tenth days because of two previous Hadiths.
3. Fasting on the tenth day alone.

Of much interest to us Muslims these days should be the fasting of the 9th and the 10th of Muharram. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said about the voluntary fasting on the Day of Aashooraa: “It expiates the sins of the preceding year.” (Muslim)

“The day of Aashooraa was the day when Moosa and his men got freedom from the hands of the Pharaoh and it was in the sacred memory of this great event that the Muslims observed voluntary fasting. The idea underlying this is to stress the affinity amongst the messengers of Allah and to show that religious devotion is a constant flow from one generation to another. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) came not to abrogate all the earlier religious practices but to codify and preserve them for all times to come in ideal forms.”

By: IslamicFinder